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Free // Visual Arts  

Trove

A View of Toronto in 50 of its Treasures

June 10 – 26, 2016

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SUPPORTED BY
Hal Jackman Foundation
Ontario Arts Council
Norm Li
MLSE
3M Canada
FREE Trove Talks
Saturday, June 25 at 3 PM
MORE INFO

This project started out with a very simple question. What are the 50 most important objects, works of art — and maybe even ideas — in Toronto and how can we bring them to the public? What lies within the walls of museums, institutions, behind the doors of collectors and within this city that only those who know it is there seek out? What if we used the city of Toronto as one gigantic art gallery and created an exhibition of these treasures — that only a fraction of Torontonians know about — in the open, for everyone to see, for everyone to be proud of. Trove: A View of Toronto in 50 of Its Treasures is a 10th anniversary Luminato project that celebrates what makes this city special. 

Artist and photographer Scott McFarland composed the images. He photographed the physical objects and works of art in their places of origin, mostly in front of a neutral background. Nothing had to move. He collaborated with the architects of the Toronto firm PARTISANS on a digital design of an art gallery inside the Hearn Generating Station. Then he placed the objects inside 3D renderings of the Hearn Jackman Gallery. In order to create a photo-realistic effect, Scott also took pictures inside the Hearn Generating Station and vistas from the Hearn that he incorporated into the 3D renderings. The final images are like shots of the exhibition of Toronto’s 50 treasures in a future, imagined Hearn Generating Station Gallery. Partisans design for "Trove" utilizes only a small portion of the Hearn, the upper level of the former turbine hall. In that very same space at the Hearn Generating Station, all 50 images are seen together. Past, present and potential future are fused together. The rest of the them are scattered throughout hundreds of locations throughout the city.

PARTISANS’ virtual design inside the Hearn Generating Station creates about 14 distinct galleries. The objects are curated like a real exhibition among these. They are grouped together in these galleries in the spirit of a “Wunderkammer,” the encyclopedic collections of the European Renaissance, long before museums became more specialized repositories for historical objects. We explicitly did not want to divide up the objects into any categories. We wanted to create free associations, counterpoints, surprise combinations that invite the audience to develop their own narrative. It is like a mirror on a Toronto that is at a point of metamorphosis, branching out in new ways, becoming more diverse and leaving the single historical narrative. Scott’s images give a glimpse into these curatorial decisions as most images do not only contain one object but the main object plus secondary objects in the background, as you would see if the shots were taken in a real gallery. 

Let’s hope that this exhibition will actually be possible one day in Toronto; that in a not-too-distant future the Hearn will create energy again: cultural energy.

By Jorn Weisbrodt
Artistic Director, Luminato Festival
 

More

Outdoor Gallery

Duplicates of the 50 images will be scattered throughout numerous locations across the city.

Exhibition

Opening June 10 citywide (6 PM Hearn Generating Station)


PARTISANS’ virtual design inside the Hearn Generating Station for “Trove” creates 14 distinct galleries or pods. The objects are curated like a real exhibition among these. They are grouped together in these galleries in the spirit of a “Wunderkammer,” the encyclopedic collections of the European Renaissance, long before museums became more specialized repositories for historical objects. We explicitly did not want to divide up the objects into any categories. We wanted to create free associations, counterpoints, surprise combinations that invite the audience to develop their own narrative. We came up with titles for each gallery that picked on some common threads that might pull through the selected objects for that particular gallery and are an invitation to further think about narratives that the objects create. The below is the list of 50 objects in order of appearance inside the 14 virtual galleries from West to East. It is the same order that the images will be displayed inside the actual Hearn Generating Stations.

Gallery 1: Comedy of Human Desires

Claes Oldenburg, <em>Floor Burger</em>, 1962 image
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Claes Oldenburg, Floor Burger, 1962
Canvas filled with foam rubber and cardboard boxes, painted with acrylic paint
Art Gallery of Ontario
Purchase, 1967
66/29
© Claes Oldenburg 2016
 - Claes Oldenburg, <em>Floor Burger</em>, 1962
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Claes Oldenburg, Floor Burger, 1962
Canvas filled with foam rubber and cardboard boxes, painted with acrylic paint
Art Gallery of Ontario
Purchase, 1967
66/29
© Claes Oldenburg 2016

Making a giant ketchup bottle and parading it along Dundas Street, students from Central Technical School’s art department protested the AGO’s purchase and display of American artist Claes Oldenburg’s Floor Burger (1962). Oldenburg’s sculpture of an enlarged hamburger is a “soft” monument to American consumerism and daily life. But instead of creating an austere likeness in bronze or marble, he experimented with the tactile possibilities of sculpture, making what appears to be a soft object out of stuffed canvases. Oldenburg had begun making painted “soft” sculptures in 1957. First exhibited in New York in 1962, Floor Burger was considered to be ground breaking in its time. Originally entitled Hamburger, Floor Burger caused controversy in 1967 when it was purchased by the Art Gallery of Ontario for $2,000. Oldenburg responded to the high school students’ protest to the purchase with characteristic humour: he said the ketchup bottle should have been constructed out of something soft, not cardboard.

Andy Warhol Artwork © 2016 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.

Andy Warhol, <em>Marilyn Tapestry</em>, 1968 image
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Andy Warhol, Marilyn Tapestry, 1968
Woven wool
Private Collection
Andy Warhol Artwork © 2016 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.
 - Andy Warhol, <em>Marilyn Tapestry</em>, 1968
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Andy Warhol, Marilyn Tapestry, 1968
Woven wool
Private Collection
Andy Warhol Artwork © 2016 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.

This very rare handwoven woolen tapestry was designed by celebrated American pop artist Andy Warhol (1928-1987) and created in 1968. The tapestry was part of the Equimark Bank corporate art collection, and was acquired by PNC Bank of Pittsburgh as part of their purchase of the bank and was subsequently bought by a private collector in Toronto in 1996. It was displayed for the first time in Europe as part of Turner Prize-artist Jeremy Deller’s "Love is Enough" exhibition, which he curated at Modern Art Oxford and the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery in 2014 and 2015, a show that brought the histories of William Morris and Warhol together. The piece was originally made for the exhibition “American Tapestries” by Charles Slatkin Galleries in New York, for which many artists including Warhol, Alexander Calder, Roy Lichtenstein and Ellsworth Kelly provided tapestry designs. Warhol originally agreed to the creation of up to 20 editions of the Marilyn tapestry but ultimately very few were made. Almost 50 years later, this is, according to the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, the only known example in existence.

Philip Guston, <em>Untitled Head</em>, 1979 image
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Philip Guston, Untitled Head, 1979
Oil on linen
Private Collection
 - Philip Guston, <em>Untitled Head</em>, 1979
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Philip Guston, Untitled Head, 1979
Oil on linen
Private Collection
Philip Guston (1913-1980) worked with figuration after 1968, but did not immediately exhibit these works. Prior to this, he had been a painter and printmaker who briefly studied at the Otis Art Institute where he met and befriended Jackson Pollock. Guston, primarily self-taught, was essentially an abstract expressionist, and gained notoriety along with fellow artists Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman. From 1959, he started to bring the gestural and the figurative together in order to pursue a radical style of stylized cartoon-like figures which was, at first, rejected. Born as Philip Goldstein in Montreal, Guston lived in America for most of his life with parents who had escaped persecution in Ukraine. Although Guston’s paintings from this era – incorporating a lexicon of Klansmen, light bulbs, cigarettes, heads and eyes – were not initially well received, they led to his being regarded as one of the most influential artists of his time. This painting was done a year prior to his death, and is therefore, one of the last “heads”, a motif begun as early as 1964.
Princess Florine and Prince Florimund costumes from <em>The Sleeping Beauty</em>, 1972 image
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Princess Florine and Prince Florimund costumes from The Sleeping Beauty, 1972
Worn by Karen Kain and Rudolf Nureyev
National Ballet of Canada
 - Princess Florine and Prince Florimund costumes from <em>The Sleeping Beauty</em>, 1972
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Princess Florine and Prince Florimund costumes from The Sleeping Beauty, 1972
Worn by Karen Kain and Rudolf Nureyev
National Ballet of Canada
The National Ballet of Canada premiered The Sleeping Beauty in 1972. This version of the treasured classic, restaged by Rudolf Nureyev and featuring designs by Nicholas Georgiadis, toured across North America. The company’s subsequent debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City placed the National Ballet on the international stage. Karen Kain, who performed the role of Princess Florine to great acclaim, won the Silver Medal at the Moscow International Ballet Competition in 1973 and went on to dance the lead role of Princess Aurora opposite Rudolf Nureyev's Prince Florimund. Together their costumes are an iconic part of the company’s archives and history. Ms. Kain, now the National Ballet of Canada's Artistic Director, also restaged The Sleeping Beauty in 2004, and in 2006 the stunning sets and costumes were rebuilt for the company’s inaugural performance at the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts.

Gallery 2: Hidden Structures

Opus 558, Wurlitzer Theatre Pipe Organ or
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Opus 558, Wurlitzer Theatre Pipe Organ or "The Mighty Wurlitzer", 1923
Casa Loma
 - Opus 558, Wurlitzer Theatre Pipe Organ or
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Opus 558, Wurlitzer Theatre Pipe Organ or "The Mighty Wurlitzer", 1923
Casa Loma
Wurlitzer organs were made primarily for theatres, particularly during the silent movie era. At the New York factory, Wurlitzer produced nickolodeons, band organs, fair organs, and pipe theatre organs until 1942 when they started making bomb proximity fuses for wartime use. Following the end of World War II, Wurlitzer became more focussed on the production of jukeboxes and smaller items like radios and personal organs. The Wurlitzer theatre organ, known as "The Mighty Wurlitzer," was invented by Robert Hope-Jones to sound like a full orchestra. These were only made from 1914 until 1942, and were perhaps the most famous of all of Wurlitzer products. The organ at Casa Loma is a rare specimen and is Canada’s largest. It cost $50,000 and was initially installed at Shea's Hippodrome Theatre, then located at 440 Bay Street, which was built for vaudeville acts and demolished in 1957, after which the organ was moved to the Maple Leaf Gardens until 1964. The Toronto Theatre Organ Society (created to rescue the organ), purchased the Wurlitzer for $3,850, because the Gardens were expanding. The Mighty Wurlitzer is now housed in Casa Loma. This type of theatre pipe organ still exists in its original state at the Fox Theatre, Detroit, Radio City Music Hall, New York, amongst many more in the UK and across America.

Andy Warhol Artwork © 2016 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.
Sol LeWitt, <em>Hanging Structure #24A</em>, 1991 image
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Sol LeWitt, Hanging Structure #24A, 1991
Painted wood
Private Collection
 - Sol LeWitt, <em>Hanging Structure #24A</em>, 1991
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Sol LeWitt, Hanging Structure #24A, 1991
Painted wood
Private Collection
This white grid by Sol LeWitt (1928-2007) dangles from the ceiling, a sculpture in suspense, levitated off the floor. There is no pedestal, just the hovering form. Built lattice by lattice and cube by cube, constructed from wood by hand and meticulously painted white, LeWitt’s irregular composition offers the possibility of eccentricity within a system of sameness. The gracefully descending grid invites exploration as the eye travels through the cubes, vectoring diagonally, up and down throughout the soaring structure. LeWitt, an artist who defined minimalism and conceptualism in the 1960s, created his work according to rational systems, yet within these he discovered infinite variation and dazzling beauty.
Michael Snow, <em>Goodbye</em>, 1959 image
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Michael Snow, Goodbye, 1959
Oil paint, carbon paper and aluminum on veneer plywood
Private Collection
 - Michael Snow, <em>Goodbye</em>, 1959
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Michael Snow, Goodbye, 1959
Oil paint, carbon paper and aluminum on veneer plywood
Private Collection
Michael Snow (b. 1928) lives in Toronto and works in various media including film, photography, sculpture and music. Between 1958 and 1960, before heading to New York with his then-wife Joyce Wieland, Snow worked on a series of works related to Goodbye that examine the notion of a “sculpture” or a “painting.” These works were all studies of the “object-ness” of the pictorial. Goodbye incorporates a wood panel, part of a piece of furniture that he reclaimed because he noticed that its forms were rectangles in a grid that echoed Detroit Blues (1958), a piece that he had recently done. He collaged elements onto the panel – placing other objects onto this found surface. Snow regards this early work as a sculpture, a painting, a collage and – ultimately – an object. The “goodbye” of the title refers to something that was once there and is now gone, and also to an object declaring its own farewell. This early work, resembling filmstrips in a way, is perhaps a prelude to the structural filmmaking of Snow’s seminal work Wavelength (1967), pinned as one of the most influential Canadian films and deemed by the Village Voice to be one of the hundred best films of the 20th century. Snow has been honoured with the Chevalier de l’Ordre des arts et des lettres, France (1995), the Governor General’s Award in Visual and Media Arts (2000) and the Gershon Iskowitz Prize (2011).
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"The Golden Archtop", Gibson Les Paul Standard, 1952
Private Collection
 -
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"The Golden Archtop", Gibson Les Paul Standard, 1952
Private Collection
Lester William Polfus (1915-2009), or Les Paul, was a jazz and blues guitarist. This guitar was his own personal model produced by Gibson between 1952 and 1957 with an electric solid body plus a trapeze bridge and tailpiece that were replaced the following year. This was one of the first mass-produced electric guitars (along with the Fender Stratocaster) that created that real "rock and roll" sound. Les Paul was invited by the Gibson Guitar Corporation to work with the company as a consultant, as he had been working on his own guitar designs to derive a sound that could not be produced on an acoustic-electric guitar. In 1941, Paul designed "The Log,” a solid-body guitar that the Gibson Les Paul is modelled after. During the design process with Gibson, it was decided that Les Paul’s name would be branded onto the peghead as a sales tool. He specified that the finish should be in gold – “gold, like rich” – and another colour choice, introduced in 1953, was black so that people could see the player’s hands move on stage. The Gibson Les Paul has a single cutaway mahogany body, an archtop, a 22-fret neck, and two single-coil pickups. This guitar, being the one that Les Paul played himself, is both an iconic and historic instrument.

Gallery 3: Death and Last Wishes

Electric Chair, c. 1905 image
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Electric Chair, c. 1905
Private Collection
 - Electric Chair, c. 1905
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Electric Chair, c. 1905
Private Collection
Auburn Prison, a maximum U.S. state prison, is where the first execution by electric chair took place in 1890 with the death of William Kemmler. The prison practiced hard labour reform strategies to finance operations. One of the strategies included a wood shop to make furniture. Gustav Stickley worked as Director of Manufacturing at Auburn around the time first electric chair was made. Given the style and craftsmanship, Stickley is credited as the designer of the original electric chair. Upon close inspection, one can see specific grooves and joinery work, indicating that great care was taken in the concept and construction of this chair. Stickley was interested in the idea of handcraft as a tool for reform as well as changing the American aesthetic. His job at Auburn predates his fame as the pioneer of the Arts and Crafts movement. A strikingly similar chair is featured in Andy Warhol’s Electric Chair series (based on a press image from Sing-Sing Prison) as a critique of the death penalty. This chair was likely a back-up chair for Sing-Sing’s infamous “Old Sparky” responsible for 614 executions between 1914-1963.
Original drawings from <em>Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy</em>, 1943 image
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Original drawings from Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, 1943
By Dorothy Foster-Chubb, Nancy Joy, Marguerite Drummond, Elizabeth Blackstock, and Eila Hopper-Ross.
Carbon dust, watercolour on paper
University of Toronto / Wolters Kluwer
 - Original drawings from <em>Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy</em>, 1943
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Original drawings from Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, 1943
By Dorothy Foster-Chubb, Nancy Joy, Marguerite Drummond, Elizabeth Blackstock, and Eila Hopper-Ross.
Carbon dust, watercolour on paper
University of Toronto / Wolters Kluwer
John C. Boileau Grant (1889-1973), originally from Scotland, was a professor of anatomy at the University of Manitoba, then the Chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto where he curated the museum of anatomical specimens. It was from these specimens that the drawings for the incredibly popular Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy (first published in 1943) were produced. The catalogue of original medical illustrations is with the University of Toronto. The drawings are anatomical studies recreating specific dissections that were devised by John C. Boileau Grant and the atlas still widely used by students today. The beautiful illustrations were by artists Eila Hopper Ross, Maria Wishart, Elizabeth Blackstock, Marguerite Drummond and, in particular, Nancy Joy and Dorothy Foster Chubb, who worked with Grant for over 30 years. Grant had developed new dissections and the drawings demonstrate these with great precision.

Gallery 4: Wound of Discovery

Troy Hurtubise, <em>Ursus Mark VI</em> image
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Troy Hurtubise, Ursus Mark VI
Titanium, duct tape
Courtesy of TIFF Film Reference Library
 - Troy Hurtubise, <em>Ursus Mark VI</em>
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Troy Hurtubise, Ursus Mark VI
Titanium, duct tape
Courtesy of TIFF Film Reference Library
Troy Hurtubise (b. 1963) is an inventor in North Bay obsessed with the potential of encountering the Canadian grizzly bear since an earlier episode of surviving such an incident. He decided to make body armour in order to study the behaviours of bears. He took seven years to make the Ursus Mark VI suit. Created from titanium, duct tape and air cushioning, it is more than seven feet high, weighs 150 pounds and cost $150,000 to make. Hurtubise is the compelling, charismatic subject of the 1996 documentary by Peter Lynch entitled Project Grizzly. In it, we see Hurtubise has created this suit and goes through various feats to test its capabilities. Because of its weight, once he is inside of it, he cannot get up by himself he happens to fall over. Lynch’s film, heralded as a lens into the Canadian psyche, is incredibly special, balancing beautiful landscapes with this high-energy character whose authenticity is captivating. Now celebrating its 20th year, Project Grizzly has been influential for directors like Quentin Tarantino and artists such as Matthew Barney. Unfortunately, Hurtubise did not encounter any bears.
<em>Septentrionalium terrarum descriptio</em>, First map of the North Pole, by Gerhard Mercator image
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Septentrionalium terrarum descriptio, First map of the North Pole, by Gerhard Mercator
Published in 1595
Collection of Toronto Public Library
 - <em>Septentrionalium terrarum descriptio</em>, First map of the North Pole, by Gerhard Mercator
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Septentrionalium terrarum descriptio, First map of the North Pole, by Gerhard Mercator
Published in 1595
Collection of Toronto Public Library
The genius cartographer Gerardus or Gerhard Mercator (1512-1594) drew this map through calculations and factual descriptions without ever exploring the mysterious Arctic himself. Mercator studied geography, mathematics and astronomy, was a master engraver and calligrapher, and made scientific instruments. In 1569, Mercator established the Mercator projection, a technique that showed lines of constant compass headings as straight lines and was very useful for sea navigators. His maps were gathered in what he coined as an “atlas” for a collection of several maps, and the first time this word was used in this context. Shown in the three-part atlas Atlantis pars altera, published by Mercator’s son a year following his death, this is the very first complete mapping of the Arctic and it displays the discoveries of the Northwest and Northeast Passages made by Sir Hugh Willoughby in 1534, Willem Barentsz in 1596, and Martin Frobisher and John Davis between 1570 and 1580. The idea that all continents were surrounded by water was the root of the idea that four rivers divide the North Pole, which Mercator believed was an enormous magnetic rock that sucked all the water down like a whirlpool. The corners of the map show the Shetland Islands, the Faroe Islands and the fictitious Frisland. The map was gifted to the Toronto Public Library by George Weston, who in 1882 founded George Weston Limited, now the largest food and retail business in Canada.
Unknown Haida Artist, <em>Sea Captain</em>, c. 1840 image
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Unknown Haida Artist, Sea Captain, c. 1840
Argillite and ivory
Art Gallery of Ontario
 - Unknown Haida Artist, <em>Sea Captain</em>, c. 1840
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Unknown Haida Artist, Sea Captain, c. 1840
Argillite and ivory
Art Gallery of Ontario
A long black coat drapes a figure that would have been foreign to the Haida, an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest coast of North America. The traditional territory of the Haida is the archipelago of Haida Gwaii north of Vancouver Island. In 1787, the territory was named the Queen Charlotte Islands by a British Navy officer, Captain George Dixon. When the title to the land was acknowledged through the work of the Council of the Haida Nation, Haida Gwaii was re-established as the territory's name. The strong continuing presence of Haida traditional culture in contemporary life reflects a highly resilient people who survived colonization, the introduction of smallpox in the 1860s, the banning of the potlatch and the residential school system that was designed to erase their culture and history. The Haidas’ skills as carvers extends from massive totem poles and canoes to delicate jewellery and smaller carvings like this example. Sea Captain is a looming figure, beautifully made in argillite – a sedimentary rock found in Haida Gwaii that is similar to black slate. The Haida started using this material for artworks and began trading their carvings with sailors and traders in the mid-1800s. The Northwest coast was heavily visited by Russian, American and British whalers, traders, tourists and the military throughout the 19th century and the Haida began to trade their carvings with these foreigners. The sculpture, 18.4 inches high, with a face made from walrus tusk ivory, is a portrait of an American sea captain, probably from New England, the type of individual often referred to as a “Boston Man” by Indigenous peoples along the coast.

Gallery 5: Bull in the China Shop

<em>Bianhu (Moon-Flask)</em>, Hard-paste porcelain with underglaze blue, Qing dynasty (1644-1911), Qianlong mark and period (1736-95) image
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Bianhu (Moon-Flask), Hard-paste porcelain with underglaze blue, Qing dynasty (1644-1911), Qianlong mark and period (1736-95)
The Robert Murray Bell and Ann Walker Bell Collection of Chinese Blue and White Porcelain
Gardiner Museum
G98.9.1
 - <em>Bianhu (Moon-Flask)</em>, Hard-paste porcelain with underglaze blue, Qing dynasty (1644-1911), Qianlong mark and period (1736-95)
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Bianhu (Moon-Flask), Hard-paste porcelain with underglaze blue, Qing dynasty (1644-1911), Qianlong mark and period (1736-95)
The Robert Murray Bell and Ann Walker Bell Collection of Chinese Blue and White Porcelain
Gardiner Museum
G98.9.1
This blue-and-white porcelain flask decorated with Buddhist emblems is one of the Gardiner Museum’s most treasured objects. Its shape was inspired by the Iranian metal and glasswork water canteens used by travellers and other nomadic peoples moving along the trade routes of the Silk Road. These were later replicated by Chinese potters in Jingdezhen using porcelain as their primary medium. The Bianhu's impressive size is rare, as large pieces tended to collapse during firing. This is a stunning reflection of global contact and exchange and the cosmopolitan aesthetic of 18th-century Qing China. The Gardiner Museum was founded in 1984 by George and Helen Gardiner as a way to share their exceptional collection of ceramics with the public. Today it is among the few museums in the world focused on ceramic art. The collection is comprised of around 4,000 objects, including the most important collection of European porcelain in Canada, the country’s best collection of Italian Renaissance Maiolica, and highly significant collections of ceramics from the ancient Americas, Chinese blue and white porcelain, Japanese porcelain, and contemporary Canadian ceramics.
“Bull”, the White Rhino, born 1963, died 2008 image
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“Bull”, the White Rhino, born 1963, died 2008
Donated by the Toronto Zoo
Royal Ontario Museum
 - “Bull”, the White Rhino, born 1963, died 2008
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“Bull”, the White Rhino, born 1963, died 2008
Donated by the Toronto Zoo
Royal Ontario Museum
"Bull", a southern white rhinoceros is the first animal in the gallery section of the Royal Ontario Museum that addresses biodiversity and conservation. Rhinos have long been hunted for their horns – containing keratin and amino acids, amongst other complex substances – which are used for medicinal purposes, and mistakenly thought to be aphrodisiac. Rhinos are hunted and killed, their huge bodies left behind, as poachers are paid great sums of money for the horns. The second largest land mammal, with a male weighing as much as 2,000 kilograms, the white rhino represents a successful conservation story, as they were thought to be nearly extinct until a small group was found and subsequently protected. The white rhino at the Royal Ontario Museum was donated by the Toronto Zoo, where he fathered three rhino cubs, as part of a conservation programme. The preservation of this specimen took a year to prepare with the help of scientists, veterinarians and taxidermists.
Seiji Onizuka, Cigarette Paper Umbrella, 1942-1946 image
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Seiji Onizuka, Cigarette Paper Umbrella, 1942-1946
Japanese Cultural Centre
 - Seiji Onizuka, Cigarette Paper Umbrella, 1942-1946
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Seiji Onizuka, Cigarette Paper Umbrella, 1942-1946
Japanese Cultural Centre
This intricately detailed umbrella by Seiji Onizuka was made from cigarette papers and a broken chopstick in an internment camp where Japanese-Canadians were moved to from 1942 to 1946, under the orders of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King. All property and belongings were placed under the protection of a Custodian and eventually sold while Japanese Canadian men, women and children were placed into thin, wooden shacks without heating or electricity. Unlike prisoners-of-war, they had to pay for their internment through the forced sale of property and belongings. It was very difficult to find coloured paper; certain cigarette papers were more valued for their colour than others and volunteers (many who were children when living in camps) at the Japanese Canadian Cultural Centre remember that many objects were constructed to create Kabuki scenes. In all 22,000 Japanese Canadians (14,000 of whom were born in Canada) were expelled from the 100-mile “protected area”, making it the largest exodus of people in Canada. Shikata-ga-nai, meaning “it can't be helped”, is a phrase sometimes used by Japanese Canadians to describe the events surrounding WWII. Although protests about the separation of families and forced sale of property did exist, for many, the cultural values of duty and obligation ensured that they quietly persevered their harsh treatment.
Ivory Horn (Oliphant) image
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Ivory Horn (Oliphant)
Southern Italy, 11th-12th century
Mount made in Great Britain, 17th century
Aga Khan Museum
 - Ivory Horn (Oliphant)
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Ivory Horn (Oliphant)
Southern Italy, 11th-12th century
Mount made in Great Britain, 17th century
Aga Khan Museum
This rare ivory tusk, a hunting horn, is an outstanding expression of the visual and cultural exchange that occurred across the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Fatimid dynasty (909-1171), which had its centre in Egypt and spanned the Byzantine Empire and the Italian city-states. It is one of the few surviving known examples carved in or near Sicily, with images derived from the Fatimid court style. Made into an Oliphant or hunting horn, the tusk is decorated with a hunting scene of real and mythical animals running in file along its length. (This is the predominant decorative theme on surviving Oliphants.) The exquisite detail and the silver mounts added in the 17th century in this splendid example suggest the horn may have served a ceremonial role.

Gallery 6: Drama of Personal Life and Fame

<em>Execution of Saint John</em>, c. 1230-1240 image
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Execution of Saint John, c. 1230-1240
Stained glass window, France
Private Collection
 - <em>Execution of Saint John</em>, c. 1230-1240
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Execution of Saint John, c. 1230-1240
Stained glass window, France
Private Collection
Saint John the Baptist is unique in being revered in many religions, including Christianity, Islam and Judaism. An iconic depiction of his execution, on the orders of Herod at the request of Salome, is seen here in this 13th-century stained glass window. Rondels and draperies represented in classical folds (Muldenfaltenstil) epitomize a style that was primarily seen in the work of Nicholas of Verdun (1130-1205), famous for his goldsmithing and enameling in the Mosan branch of Romanesque art. The window is believed to be from the Cathedral of Saint-Etienne d'Auxerre in Burgundy. Renowned for its stained glass, the church was built between 1215 and 1233 over a crypt from the 11th century. The window is installed in the home of its collector, letting light bathe through it.
1/2 pair of John Lennon’s Chelsea
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1/2 pair of John Lennon’s Chelsea "Beatle" Boot, 1962
Made by Annello & Davide
Bata Shoe Museum
 - 1/2 pair of John Lennon’s Chelsea
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1/2 pair of John Lennon’s Chelsea "Beatle" Boot, 1962
Made by Annello & Davide
Bata Shoe Museum
The “Beatle” boot is a modified Chelsea boot that was commissioned by John Lennon and Paul McCartney upon their return to England from Hamburg. They came up with their ideal look and asked Anello & Davide, a footwear company in Covent Garden that had been making theatrical and bespoke dance footwear since 1922, to create this stylish boot with a slight Cuban heel, elastic sides and a tight ankle. The Bata Shoe Museum owns one half of a pair of John Lennon's boots, included in their current exhibition “Standing Tall: The Curious History of Men in Heels.” The museum opened in 1995, and features a collection, begun by Sonja Bata in the 1940s, of over 13,000 artifacts spanning 4,500 years of history. The mission of the Bata Shoe Museum is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the role of footwear in the social and cultural life of humanity.
Door to the dressing room from the Maple Leaf Gardens image
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Door to the dressing room from the Maple Leaf Gardens
Collection of the Ultimate Leafs Fan
 - Door to the dressing room from the Maple Leaf Gardens
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Door to the dressing room from the Maple Leaf Gardens
Collection of the Ultimate Leafs Fan
Maple Leaf Gardens, a Toronto venue that was home to the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Toronto Huskies basketball team, hosted Elvis Presley twice, the Beatles (in 1964, 1965 and 1966), Jimi Hendrix (1969), Stevie Wonder (1972) and Rush (1978), amongst thousands of legends. The Gardens was the site of the first NBA game in 1946, and it was where Team Canada beat the Soviets in game two of the 1972 Summit Series. This is the door to the dressing room, a door every player, musician, director and even Winston Churchill would have gone through. It is now installed in the home of the Ultimate Maple Leafs Fan.
1992 and 1993 World Series Championship Rings of the Toronto Blue Jays image
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1992 and 1993 World Series Championship Rings of the Toronto Blue Jays
Collection of Geddy Lee
 - 1992 and 1993 World Series Championship Rings of the Toronto Blue Jays
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1992 and 1993 World Series Championship Rings of the Toronto Blue Jays
Collection of Geddy Lee
Photographed on the hand of Geddy Lee, legendary singer, songwriter and bassist of the band Rush, are the World Series championship rings won by the Toronto Blue Jays in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, the Jays won against the Atlanta Braves in the first World Series ever with games played outside the United States. In 1993, they won against Philadelphia Phillies. These were some of the most exciting times for the city – and the Blue Jays remain the only Canadian team to have appeared in and won a World Series, particularly two years in a row making them “back-to-back” champs! The rings are made by Tiffany & Co. in 14K gold, with a maple leaf (actually, two on the 1993 ring), the largest diamond as the eye of the blue jay, and a scattering of diamonds encircling the logo. Lee is a huge baseball fan and collector, and the rings are part of his personal collection.

Gallery 7: Anatomy of Pop Culture

Samurai <em>kabuto</em> (helmet) and <em>hanbo</em> (mask), c. 1336-1573 image
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Samurai kabuto (helmet) and hanbo (mask), c. 1336-1573
Lacquered iron, wood, leather, paper
Private Collection
 - Samurai <em>kabuto</em> (helmet) and <em>hanbo</em> (mask), c. 1336-1573
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Samurai kabuto (helmet) and hanbo (mask), c. 1336-1573
Lacquered iron, wood, leather, paper
Private Collection
Of all the world cultures in medieval times, perhaps none equals the Japanese for their artistry, ingenuity and skill in the development of accoutrements made for war. This samurai kabuto (helmet) and hanbo (face mask) date from the Muromachi period (1336-1573), in the midst of what is often called The Age of Battles – a time when the island nation was in a constant state of civil war. Crafted by Yoshimichi and Takayoshi (who, along with Nobuiye, comprised the so-called San-Saku – the Three Later Master Armourers of Japan), they feature myriad technical innovations unheard of at the time, such as the helmet being made of 72 plates, each S-shaped, to better absorb the concussive effects of a blow. The frontal crest, or maedate, represents a Shachihoko, a mythical beast with the head of a tiger and the body of a carp and is typical of the samurai penchant for symbolism and mysticism in their armour.
Model of the CF-105 Avro Arrow and Blueprint from Avro Canada image
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Model of the CF-105 Avro Arrow and Blueprint from Avro Canada
(copy of a blueprint that was smuggled out of the factory in 1959 before it could be destroyed)
Ontario Science Centre and Aerospace Heritage Foundation of Canada
 - Model of the CF-105 Avro Arrow and Blueprint from Avro Canada
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Model of the CF-105 Avro Arrow and Blueprint from Avro Canada
(copy of a blueprint that was smuggled out of the factory in 1959 before it could be destroyed)
Ontario Science Centre and Aerospace Heritage Foundation of Canada
The 6.5-foot model of the Avro Arrow, owned by the Aerospace Heritage Foundation of Canada, actually contains a fragment of the famous twin-engined, supersonic interceptor jet. The CF-105 had near-Mach-2 speed, and was built to serve as the Royal Canadian Air Force’s key interceptor against Soviet bombers, the threat of which had been looming. The Arrow was an achievement in aerodynamic design and in 1955, 35 Arrow aircraft were ordered to be constructed. Given the intense timeline, prototypes were eliminated, and the company went straight to full production with a large-scale testing programme. In 1957, Diefenbaker signed the North American Air Defence agreement joining Canada and the US for mutual air defence. As well, his Conservative government sought to rein in what they claimed was “rampant Liberal spending.” The Avro’s development was abruptly stopped in 1959 and all parts of the factory – the tooling, engines, plans and assembly – were ordered to be destroyed two months later, and put 15,000 people out of work. The Arrow may have been quashed in favour of the American Bomarc, the nuclear-tipped anti-aircraft missile, which the US wanted to place in Canada, to create a shared monitored air space of North America. The Avro Arrow was set to break world speed and altitude records; it was the most advanced fighter jet. Its sudden cancellation was viewed by some as incredibly detrimental to Canada’s aviation potential. Canada could not afford both the Arrow and the Bomarc but the latter won. This is a digital copy of the original blueprint that was smuggled out to save all traces of the Arrow from being destroyed, its circumstances which are still extremely suspicious. Perhaps the US simply did not want Canada to have a superior weapon system.
TRK-12 Phantom Telereceiver, 1939, Lucite image
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TRK-12 Phantom Telereceiver, 1939, Lucite
MZTV Museum of Television & Archive
 - TRK-12 Phantom Telereceiver, 1939, Lucite
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TRK-12 Phantom Telereceiver, 1939, Lucite
MZTV Museum of Television & Archive
The 1939 New York World’s Fair was dominated by an optimistic vision of a technological future. The crowning feature of the RCA Pavilion was a display of the TRK line of televisions. The presentation of these sets is often cited as the beginning of the North American television age. The 1939 display marked the commencement of regular television broadcasts in North America and was the first opportunity for a large public to see a television in operation. The Phantom Telereceiver, now the rarest set on the planet, was built with Lucite, one of the 1939 New York World Fair’s theme materials. The inner workings of the receiver were exposed to remove any doubts that magic or trickery were involved in television broadcasting. To demonstrate that the pictures on the screen were live images, volunteers were escorted outside the building to stand before television cameras and wave to the folks viewing them inside. Participants received a souvenir card with their name on it, stating, “This is to certify that you have been Televised at the RCA Exhibit Building at the 1939 New York World’s Fair.” The Lucite set can be viewed at the MZTV Museum of Television in Liberty Village. The museum was established by Moses Znaimer, creator of over 20 independent stations and channels including CityTV, Bravo, MuchMusic, and CablePulse24, and the founder of ZoomerMedia Limited.
Felix the Cat doll, first broadcast in 1928 image
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Felix the Cat doll, first broadcast in 1928
Papier maché
MZTV Museum of Television & Archive
 - Felix the Cat doll, first broadcast in 1928
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Felix the Cat doll, first broadcast in 1928
Papier maché
MZTV Museum of Television & Archive
Felix the Cat rose to TV stardom in the late 1920s, when the American communications giant RCA chose him as a test subject for its television research. The lighting required to reflect images into the primitive television camera of the day proved far too hot for humans to stand, so using an inanimate object was the only option. The engineers at RCA Research Labs purchased this papier maché figurine of Felix from the famed New York City toy store FAO Schwarz, just up 5th Avenue at 57th Street from their own offices at Rockefeller Centre. Felix fell off his turntable often: first his tail fell off, then his head, which was reattached using a drumstick. It was in 1928 that RCA first broadcast Felix from the Empire State Building. Later, Felix was honoured when RCA transmitted his image on the first commercial television broadcast in 1939, as a lead-up to the formal unveiling of television at the New York World’s Fair. Thus, Felix the Cat became television’s first star! Before his television debut, this cat enjoyed many lives in animated film. Created by Otto Messmer, the initial series played from 1920 to 1928. The fun-loving cat made a comeback in 1936, starring in three short films. Then, in 1960, a new series was produced for television that featured the debut of Felix’s magic bag of tricks. Felix’s most recent performance occurred in 1991 at the Ed Sullivan Theatre in New York City as part of the first demonstration of high-definition television in the USA. Felix can be viewed at the MZTV Museum of Television in Liberty Village. The museum was established by Moses Znaimer, creator of over 20 independent stations and channels including CityTV, Bravo, MuchMusic, and CablePulse24, and the founder of ZoomerMedia Limited.

Gallery 8: Current Origin of Species

Giant panda Er Shun and giant panda cubs Jia Panpan and Jia Yueyue image
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Giant panda Er Shun and giant panda cubs Jia Panpan and Jia Yueyue
Toronto Zoo
 - Giant panda Er Shun and giant panda cubs Jia Panpan and Jia Yueyue
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Giant panda Er Shun and giant panda cubs Jia Panpan and Jia Yueyue
Toronto Zoo
As of 2014, there are only 1590 giant pandas left in the wild, endangered due to urban development which is restricting and degrading their habitat, hence there has been a conservation strategy to increase their population, as they have a naturally low birthrate. The panda cubs twins, Jia Panpan (“Canadian Hope”, male) and Jia Yueyue (“Canadian Joy”, female), were born on October 13, 2015 to mum Er Shun who has been loaned who was loaned (along with male Da Mao) by China to the Toronto Zoo in 2013. The fertile period for female giant pandas is 24 to 72 hours only, between March and May. Er Shun was artificially inseminated and the father of the cubs is still not known. The giant panda is an endangered species, and only breeds once in two years if not already raising a cub; breeding is a great challenge as they are generally solitary animals,  however there is a contradicting information about pandas being poor breeders. Male pandas have to be behaviourally competent, and have to be a good match for the female. A female will mate with several males, and they only have contact for a few days. Twins are born approximately 50% of the time but usually only one cub will survive in the wild because it takes so much energy to raise two cubs, whereas, in captivity, twin swapping takes place with the help of caregivers assisting.  After the mating season, there is little contact with other pandas. Giant pandas are crucial to the natural growth of bamboo forests as they spread seeds. In captivity, there are 49 outside of China, in 18 different zoos. Pandas have historically been at risk of poaching, and continue to be as there is great demand for panda skins in Hong Kong and Japan. The panda is a source of diplomacy between the People’s Republic of China and American or Japanese zoos, which at first were given as gifts, but are now loaned along with the focus on a breeding programme. 
Collection of original editions of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, and The Times of London spanning the course of Darwin’s lifetime image
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Collection of original editions of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, and The Times of London spanning the course of Darwin’s lifetime
Collection of Garrett Herman
 - Collection of original editions of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, and The Times of London spanning the course of Darwin’s lifetime
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Collection of original editions of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, and The Times of London spanning the course of Darwin’s lifetime
Collection of Garrett Herman
Garrett Herman owns 2,500 volumes of Darwin's works as well as all issues of The Times of London that span the course of Darwin's life. He began collecting writings on evolution in the early 1990s, and became transfixed with Darwin, the writer of what continues to be the most controversial text in modern history: the study of natural selection. Darwin produced six editions of The Origin of Species between 1859 and 1872. This is the largest collection of first editions known worldwide. Editions in different languages fill Herman's bookshelves, alongside a scale replica of the HMS Beagle in which Darwin travelled to the Galapagos. Herman often receives researchers who traverse through pages of The Times of London, looking up exact dates that are related to events around Darwin’s daily circumstances and struggles.

Gallery 9: Massacre and Protection

<em>Nkondi</em> and <em>Mbulu Ngulu</em>, (Kota Reliquary Figure) image
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Nkondi and Mbulu Ngulu, (Kota Reliquary Figure)
Late 19th or early 20th century
Wood, metal, copper
Private collection
 - <em>Nkondi</em> and <em>Mbulu Ngulu</em>, (Kota Reliquary Figure)
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Nkondi and Mbulu Ngulu, (Kota Reliquary Figure)
Late 19th or early 20th century
Wood, metal, copper
Private collection
In moments of crisis, a person may require the protection of a spirit. The Nkondi, from the Democratic Republic of Congo, is made by a nganga (a religious authority) who carves a human figure and then drives through it with nails and other items during a ritual to awaken the spirits and call them into their task of protection. Often a reflective material was used for the eyes and/or body of the figure, preventing any evil or misuse by projecting these back. Many contemporary artists have referenced the Nkondi, including American artist Kara Walker in her silhouette works and as a central motif in her solo exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, in 2006. The desire to collect these was in part due to Robert Visser, a German diplomat, who introduced many of these figures into museum collections (like the Detroit Institute of Arts) in the early 1900s – some of which were purchased, some simply taken.

The Mbulu Ngulu or Kota Reliquary Figure was made by the Kota tribe of Gabon to safeguard the bones of a respected ancestor. Ancestral worship was at the root of all rituals in this society as ancestors were highly revered as leaders of the community. The figure was comprised of a head sitting on stylized shoulders. A convex face would represent a male, while a concave one denoted a female. These figures are unique amongst African sculpture forms in that they are made of both wood and hammered copper, a material associated with longevity. The lozenge- or diamond-shaped base would be bound upright to a cylindrical bark box atop a basket or bundle – bwete – that held the bones of the ancestor. The figures and their burdens were placed outside of the home and on the edge of a village on sacred ground. The Kota were migratory people and they would take the bwete with them but often leave behind the Mbulu Ngulu. About 50 examples are known in American and European collections, which is a fraction in comparison to the quantity made by the Kota peoples. Many of the reliquary figures began to disappear between 1940 and 1960, due to orders from missionaries who either confiscated them, hid them in forests, or destroyed them.

Kara Walker, <em>10 Years Massacre (and its Retelling) #1-3</em>, 2009 image
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Kara Walker, 10 Years Massacre (and its Retelling) #1-3, 2009
Mixed media, cut paper, and acrylic on gessoed panel
Private Collection
 - Kara Walker, <em>10 Years Massacre (and its Retelling) #1-3</em>, 2009
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Kara Walker, 10 Years Massacre (and its Retelling) #1-3, 2009
Mixed media, cut paper, and acrylic on gessoed panel
Private Collection
African-American artist Kara Walker (b. 1969) is internationally renowned for her nearly life-sized narrative cut-paper silhouettes that retrace the violence and abuse of slavery experienced in the American South. Her traditional-seeming imagery initially appears pleasant and picturesque, referencing the way the lives of African-American slaves have often been depicted, but she subverts the medium to tell us another history altogether.  Walker's installations bring the viewer into a direct relationship with the realities of history, and include scenes of abuse and rape as experienced within slavery. Shown here are all three panels of her 2009 work, 10 Years Massacre (and its Retelling). This is one of the largest works by Walker to be found in a private collection in Canada. Walker has perhaps become best known for her enormous “A Subtlety or the Marvelous Sugar Baby”, a giant sugar sphinx presented by Creative Time in New York, 2014, in homage to the past unpaid workers on cane fields.
British Officer's Gorget fragments, modified by the First Nations image
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British Officer's Gorget fragments, modified by the First Nations
Fort York National Historic Site, City of Toronto Museums & Heritage Services
 - British Officer's Gorget fragments, modified by the First Nations
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British Officer's Gorget fragments, modified by the First Nations
Fort York National Historic Site, City of Toronto Museums & Heritage Services
This British gorget was found in archaeological digs at Fort York National Historic Site from the layer of the Battle of York which was on April 27, 1813. Brass-gilt gorgets were worn by the British military and indicated "officer of the day", but were also presented to First Nations Chiefs as a symbol of mutual respect. Some gorgets were flattened and separated into pieces that were worn by chiefs on particular days of battle. This gorget was recovered in two pieces on opposite ends of the site, while the rest of the gorget has never found. What is so fascinating about the find at Fort York is the story of the city, and how this little gorget tells us about two cultures on one of the most traumatic days of this city.
Peter Paul Rubens, <em>The Massacre of the Innocents</em>, 1611-1612 image
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Peter Paul Rubens, The Massacre of the Innocents, 1611-1612
Oil on oak panel
The Thomson Collection © Art Gallery of Ontario
 - Peter Paul Rubens, <em>The Massacre of the Innocents</em>, 1611-1612
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Peter Paul Rubens, The Massacre of the Innocents, 1611-1612
Oil on oak panel
The Thomson Collection © Art Gallery of Ontario
Rubens painted The Massacre of the Innocents on returning home to Antwerp after eight years in Italy. The three-dimensional quality of the figures in the painting testifies to the influence on Rubens’ style of Roman sculpture, while the sumptuous palette and the high emotional tenor of the composition are nods to Italian contemporaries like Caravaggio. The painting was probably made as a chimney piece for the receiving room in an upper class Antwerp home, which makes the subject matter – the execution of all the boys in Bethlehem two years old or under – curious. The violent acts of the Roman soldiers and the palpable devastation of the painting's women would have, undoubtedly, inspired a variety of conversations, ranging from the comparable ravages of the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648) to the virtuosity of Rubens’ painterly technique. Canadian businessman Ken Thomson acquired The Massacre in 2001 with the intention of donating it to the Art Gallery of Ontario and providing Canadians with this spectacular example of Old Master painting. The painting’s incredible craftsmanship and its evocation of the history of sculpture make it a fitting apotheosis to Thomson's Collection of European Art at the gallery.

Gallery 10: Inspiration of the Male Gaze

Jean Arp, <em>Buste sylvestre</em>, 1963 image
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Jean Arp, Buste sylvestre, 1963
Marble
Private Collection
 - Jean Arp, <em>Buste sylvestre</em>, 1963
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Jean Arp, Buste sylvestre, 1963
Marble
Private Collection
Jean (Hans) Arp (1886-1966) was one of the founders of Dadaism in 1916, became a surrealist in the 1920s and later turned to constructivism, a movement that demanded more order and rationality than surrealism. In the early 1960s, Arp made a series of 10 Buste sylvestre sculptures, some in bronze and some in marble, that stemmed from a series of biomorphic pieces begun in the 1930s. In his later years, Arp enjoyed many successes, including the Grand Prize for Sculpture at the Venice Biennale in 1954, a retrospective of his work at New York’s Museum of Modern Art in 1958, and a retrospective at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris in 1962. Arp made editions of the torso sculpture in polished bronze only, which from time to time, come up for auction.
Pablo Picasso, <em>Le Petit Dejeuner</em>, 1960 image
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Pablo Picasso, Le Petit Dejeuner, 1960
Oil on canvas
Private Collection
 - Pablo Picasso, <em>Le Petit Dejeuner</em>, 1960
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Pablo Picasso, Le Petit Dejeuner, 1960
Oil on canvas
Private Collection
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) is considered one of the most influential artists of the past century. He led the cubism movement with Georges Braque and Juan Gris. His later works explore the history of art, in particular the pictorial problems of past paintings by himself and other artists. In its colours and composition, 1960's Le Petit Dejeuner is reminiscent of 1957's Las Meninas, a series of 58 paintings in which Picasso performed comprehensive analyses, reinterpretations and recreations of the 1656 painting by Diego Velázquez.
Tom Frost’s Mujahedeen arabic machine – Oliver typewriter image
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Tom Frost’s Mujahedeen arabic machine – Oliver typewriter
From the film “Naked Lunch”, 1991, directed by David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg Collection
TIFF Film Reference Library
 - Tom Frost’s Mujahedeen arabic machine – Oliver typewriter
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Tom Frost’s Mujahedeen arabic machine – Oliver typewriter
From the film “Naked Lunch”, 1991, directed by David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg Collection
TIFF Film Reference Library
The Mujahideen Arabic-language Oliver is one of many typewriters in Naked Lunch, David Cronenberg's sci-fi drama from 1991 inspired by the biographical novel by William S. Burroughs. The typewriters in the film mutate into insects and give orders to its protagonist, Tom Frost. Cronenberg (b. 1943) is a master of films that chronicle the transformation of the body into the horrific; he basically created the "body horror" genre. TIFF's first major touring exhibition, "David Cronenberg: Evolution," curated by TIFF CEO Piers Handling and former TIFF Artistic Director Noah Cowan, addresses the director's fascination with and study of evolution, and showcases such artifacts as this and other typewriters from Naked Lunch and the helmet from Videodrome. Cronenberg is Canada's most renowned filmmaker and, quite fittingly, he will play the role of God in an upcoming indie sci-fi.
Tiffany Lamp, c. 1910 image
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Tiffany Lamp, c. 1910
Glass, bronze
Private Collection
 - Tiffany Lamp, c. 1910
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Tiffany Lamp, c. 1910
Glass, bronze
Private Collection
The son of Charles Lewis Tiffany, founder of Tiffany and Company, Louis Comfort Tiffany started out as a painter but later became interested in stained glass. First made in 1895, his stained-glass leaded lamps were made by drawing out the pattern on cardboard, then deciding on glass colours (with each represented by a number). The glass was then laid over the pattern, traced and cut to its assigned shape, after which copper foil was pressed along each edge so that the pieces could be soldered to create the overall shape. The designs were by Clara Driscoll under Louis Tiffany, and there were three styles: Favrile, Geometric, and Transition to Flowers, the series to which this lamp belongs, with its beautiful dragonfly motif. Tiffany lamps coincide with the growing use of the electric lightbulb – by turning on the switch, the decorative glass would come alive. Being a naturally good salesman, Tiffany could sell these portable lamps that went hand-in-hand with new technology. While these lamps were always expensive, they went out of fashion in the mid-1920s, to be revived in 1960s. In 1997, Christie’s auction house sold a lamp for $2.8 million!
Amedeo Modigliani, <em>Head IV</em>, 1911-1912 image
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Amedeo Modigliani, Head IV, 1911-1912
Stone
Private Collection
 - Amedeo Modigliani, <em>Head IV</em>, 1911-1912
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Amedeo Modigliani, Head IV, 1911-1912
Stone
Private Collection
The elongated faces in Modigliani's paintings were extended to his sculptures, which he dedicated himself to between 1909 and 1914. Born in Italy, Modigliani (1884-1920) was from an intellectual family of Sephardic Jewish descent. He moved to Paris in 1906 and worked furiously. From 1909 to 1910, he was a disciple of Constantin Brâncuși. This two-foot-tall piece is of a woman wearing an African mask. He and many artists of his day were influenced by the geometry and simplicity of form of African art. There are only 27 known sculptures by Modigliani, who died at 35 from tuberculosis, an illness he had had since childhood. In 2010, one of his limestone sculptures, Tete, was purchased anonmyously for 43.2 million Euros, one of the highest prices paid for a sculpture ever.

Gallery 11: Spirit and the Flesh

Antony Gormley, <em>ROOM II</em>, 1987 image
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Antony Gormley, ROOM II, 1987
Concrete
Private Collection
 - Antony Gormley, <em>ROOM II</em>, 1987
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Antony Gormley, ROOM II, 1987
Concrete
Private Collection
Sir Antony Gormley (b. 1950) is a British sculptor who works through the form of his body, as a material experience that he lives within and outside of. His ROOM series – 1980 to 1990 – is the first exploration of the figure within space. Where ROOM, 1980 took the layers of the material world that come in close contact with the body and expanded them into the enclosed spaces of the built world, ROOM II condenses the enclosing aspect of architecture and places it right next to the skin. ROOM II chronicles a translation of the dimensions of the artist’s body into a modernist, concrete structure. As the series continues, the body is taken out to the desert, then squeezed into a tiny space, describing a human place in space at large.
Karoo Ashevak, <em>Spirit</em>, c. 1970 image
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Karoo Ashevak, Spirit, c. 1970
Ossified whalebone, baleen and ivory
Museum of Inuit Art
 - Karoo Ashevak, <em>Spirit</em>, c. 1970
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Karoo Ashevak, Spirit, c. 1970
Ossified whalebone, baleen and ivory
Museum of Inuit Art
This is a two-sided sculpture made from ossified whalebone – which takes between 50 to 100 years to become dry enough to serve as a carving medium. Karoo Ashevak (1940-1974) was one of the most renowned artists from the Talurjuaq (Spence Bay), Nunavut community. He was the first to deviate from a traditional style, developing this "expressionist" style and influencing generations with over 250 sculptures that channelled the local Netsilingmiut spirituality. Ashevak’s works were created during a time of change in which he, along with many Inuit, was transitioning from a traditional life on the land to a life in settled communities.
Mother and child figurine, c. 2,000 BCE image
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Mother and child figurine, c. 2,000 BCE
Red polished ware
Royal Ontario Museum
 - Mother and child figurine, c. 2,000 BCE
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Mother and child figurine, c. 2,000 BCE
Red polished ware
Royal Ontario Museum
This ancient Cypriot terracotta figurine of a mother holding her child should not be interpreted as “primitive.” The artisan who made it was perfectly capable of producing a more naturalistic form but purposely created this abstract shape with a flat body, neck and head. The mother's garment is richly decorated; she wears jewellery, has long hair falling on her back and displays tattooing on her cheeks. Most of the plank-shaped red polished ware idols discovered have been found in tombs and all appear to be women and mothers. Perhaps they were symbols of fertility kept by women to increase the chance of conception. Their exact function in the afterlife remains a mystery.

Gallery 12: Nature in Living

Lawren Harris<br /><em>North Shore, Lake Superior, VIII</em><br />1921-1922<br />Bess Housser<br /><em>Old Mine Shaft, Colbalt</em>, 1930 image
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Lawren Harris
North Shore, Lake Superior, VIII
1921-1922
Bess Housser
Old Mine Shaft, Colbalt, 1930
Oil on canvas
Private Collections
 - Lawren Harris<br /><em>North Shore, Lake Superior, VIII</em><br />1921-1922<br />Bess Housser<br /><em>Old Mine Shaft, Colbalt</em>, 1930
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Lawren Harris
North Shore, Lake Superior, VIII
1921-1922
Bess Housser
Old Mine Shaft, Colbalt, 1930
Oil on canvas
Private Collections
This painting by Lawren Harris (1885-1970) in a private collection has never been publicly shown. It is displayed here with the work of Bess Housser (1890-1969) to illustrate a great love story. When Harris and Bess, who was married to Harris’s childhood friend, fell in love, they saw no way forward. When Housser was left for another woman and the two wanted to be together, Harris was married with three children. He ultimately left his wife of 24 years in 1934. Harris and Housser moved to the US and then, in 1940, to Vancouver. One of the founders of the Group of Seven, Harris had a distinctive style, capturing the scenery with a certain quality of abstraction, a thick application of paint and an exploration of the spiritual (theosophical in his case) in the landscape. This early painting, forsees the future style that would become more pared down, more minimal, but still connected to the landscape. Housser, who was included in Group of Seven exhibitions, was mostly self-taught. The Group of Seven were a group of Canadian landscape painters, working together from 1920 to 1933, communing with nature, they worked to define an identity for Canadian art. 
Charles Rennie Mackintosh image
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Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Royal Ontario Museum
 - Charles Rennie Mackintosh
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Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Royal Ontario Museum
Cabinet, 1902, white painted oak (restored finish), silver leaf, inlay of coloured glass; 984.85.1; Bed, 1904, white painted wood (restored finish), 984.85.2.1.1-2.1.5; Chair, c. 1898-1900, oak, stained dark, horsehair fabric cover, 994.172.1, A Generous Gift from the Howarth Collection; Wash stand, 1904, white painted wood (restored finish), ebony handles, glass, silvered metal mounts, 984.85.2.2.1-2.2.

It is largely due to the work of architectural historian Thomas Howarth (1914-2000), that the legacy of Scottish architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) was re-established. Howarth, originally from Manchester, immigrated to Canada and became dean of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto. He wrote articles, monographs and amassed a private collection of Mackintosh material and made generous donations to ROM, Glasgow University, and the Mackintosh Society. The ROM has one of the largest collections of Mackintosh’s work outside of Scotland. The rest of Howarth’s collection was sold at Christie’s in 1994 for 2.27 million pounds. When Mackintosh died in 1928, his home and contents were valued at 88 pounds. The furniture at the ROM includes a washstand, a bed, the “Charles cabinet”, and the now-iconic high-back chair which was originally designed for Miss Cranston’s tearooms on Argyle Street, Glasgow, and were also used by Mackintosh in his own dining room. Mackintosh manifested several influences in the design of his architecture and furnishings, including those emanating from Japan, which he synthesized with some Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau, Wiener Werkstatte and Baroque design elements. Mackintosh’s “conception of the room as a work of art in which every detail must form an integral part of, and be subordinate to the whole” was to have a profound influence on his contemporaries. His place as an architect who exercised a profound role in the evolution of 20th century architecture and design, is no longer disputed.
Sea Lily Fossil, 180-million-year-old Jurassic Posidonia Shale of Holzmaden image
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Sea Lily Fossil, 180-million-year-old Jurassic Posidonia Shale of Holzmaden
Germany
Private Collection
 - Sea Lily Fossil, 180-million-year-old Jurassic Posidonia Shale of Holzmaden
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Sea Lily Fossil, 180-million-year-old Jurassic Posidonia Shale of Holzmaden
Germany
Private Collection
This crinoid, Seirocrinus subangularis, was quarried from the 180-million-year-old Jurassic Posidonia Shale of Holzmaden in southern Germany. The fossil measures a staggering 7'11'' high by 4' wide. The Holzmaden site is well known for its exceptional fossil preservation, the result of very low oxygen levels on the sea floor, which inhibited destruction by scavengers and bacteria. Crinoids with long stems are typically anchored to the sea floor. The ancient Holzmaden sea floor, however, was apparently unsuitable, and Seirocrinus here is found attached to logs. As the wood drifted with currents at the surface, the crinoid spread its arms like a tow net to capture food particles suspended in the water. In this example, a colony of three large specimens of Seirocrinus, each reaching several feet, lived together attached to the same log. The log also provided an attachment site for the clam Pseudomytiloides dubius.

Gallery 13: Utopia

Constantin Brâncuși, <em>The Kiss (Le Baiser)</em>, 1908-1910 image
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Constantin Brâncuși, The Kiss (Le Baiser), 1908-1910
Plaster with oil staining patina of variegated ochre tones
Private collection
 - Constantin Brâncuși, <em>The Kiss (Le Baiser)</em>, 1908-1910
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Constantin Brâncuși, The Kiss (Le Baiser), 1908-1910
Plaster with oil staining patina of variegated ochre tones
Private collection
Constantin Brâncuși (1876-1957) directly carved his sculptures instead of making clay models. Originally from Romania, he moved to Paris and briefly worked in the studio of Rodin, which shaped his thoughts on the treatment of form. Brâncuși, often said to have redefined sculpture in the modern age (and once a mentor to Modigliani), focused on finding the true nature and form of the materials he worked in. From 1907, Brancusi broke away from the established method of modeling, and revived the technique of direct carving as evidenced in The Kiss. The integrity of the material is maintained, and the single block of stone from which the original was carved remains visible as the figures emerge. He developed a distillation process, simplifying and purifying his forms. All ornamentation and embellishments have been eliminated, and the figures have been reduced to their essentials, allowing the pure essence of the subject to communicate to the viewer. Here, the bodies of the two lovers are fused together in a loving embrace. Six plaster casts (like this one) exist, and he exhibited one of these at the Armory Show in 1913. This form was pursued in several versions, slowly becoming more and more abstract and geometric. The Kiss is part of his proto-cubist style, and led to the abstract sculpture he began developing in the early 1920s.
Handwritten score of <em>Apocalypsis by R. Murray Schafer</em>, 1972, revised 2015 image
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Handwritten score of Apocalypsis by R. Murray Schafer, 1972, revised 2015
Library and Archives Canada
 - Handwritten score of <em>Apocalypsis by R. Murray Schafer</em>, 1972, revised 2015
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Handwritten score of Apocalypsis by R. Murray Schafer, 1972, revised 2015
Library and Archives Canada
The first full production of Apocalypsis by R. Murray Schafer (b. 1933) took place in London, Ontario, in 1980, and it was not performed again until the 2013 Luminato Festival. (The 2013 version was “a bold music-drama-ritual-theatre extravaganza,” according to the Globe and Mail.) With a cast of a thousand, the epic oratorium is in two parts. The first, John’s Vision, about the end times, is based on the Book of Revelation. The second part, Credo, reflects on rebirth, reconstruction and an improved new world. This handwritten score is remarkable for the graphic style of its notations.
Buckminster Fuller, <em>Project Toronto</em>, 1968 image
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Buckminster Fuller, Project Toronto, 1968
Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections
York University
 - Buckminster Fuller, <em>Project Toronto</em>, 1968
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Buckminster Fuller, Project Toronto, 1968
Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections
York University
Invited to the city following the Montreal Expo of 1968, Buckminster Fuller – the visionary inventor, architect, writer and designer – was asked to propose a plan for the harbour area of Toronto. During a press conference held by The Toronto Telegram, Fuller announced a plan that included a 3,000-foot-long galleria, linking the city to the lake, in which there would be cafés, boutiques, film houses, art galleries and a connection to Union Station. A pedestrian bridge from the galleria would connect to a high-density waterfront apartment complex built on a series of islands. He also proposed a 400-foot high, 20-storey crystal pyramid, accessible from Front Street, University Avenue and Lake Shore Boulevard, that would serve as a trade centre. Lastly, he wanted to build a high-rise office tower, the Gateway Tower, to create a visual demarcation between the city and the lake. Another part of the proposal was to extend Toronto into the lake and build islands that serve as swimming suburbs in Lake Ontario. In a way the Portlands and the Hearn Generating Station as the largest community and cultural center in the world are an inspiration from Buckminster Fuller’s vision and could be a brainchild of this 20th century genius.
Twenty-three meteorites from Mars image
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Twenty-three meteorites from Mars
Royal Ontario Museum
 - Twenty-three meteorites from Mars
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Twenty-three meteorites from Mars
Royal Ontario Museum
The ROM’s collection of Martian meteorites – actual pieces of the planet Mars – are a truly exceptional treasure. With 23 pieces from different individuals (there are only 100 Martians known to exist on Earth) it is one of the largest collections in any public institution. But it is more than their scarcity that makes them so important. If a planet is hit – as they periodically are – by an asteroid, the force unleashed by the impact can blow material off the surface and launch it into space. If the material finds its way to Earth and is recognized for what it is, it can then unleash its secrets. Meteorites are our only source of material from other planets, and they have told us much about Mars. ROM samples have helped to show that the Martian crust was geologically active up until relatively recently (200 million years is recent, geologically speaking) unlike the other rocky planets in our solar system. Continued study of the collection will paint a more complete picture of this other world, and show us just how different we are, or indeed, how similar.

Gallery 14: Entrance to the Lookout

Coptic roundel, orbiculus. Egypt, 7th to 8th century image
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Coptic roundel, orbiculus. Egypt, 7th to 8th century
Tapestry-woven wool and linen
Gift of Mrs. Herta Vodstrcil
Textile Museum of Canada
 - Coptic roundel, orbiculus. Egypt, 7th to 8th century
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Coptic roundel, orbiculus. Egypt, 7th to 8th century
Tapestry-woven wool and linen
Gift of Mrs. Herta Vodstrcil
Textile Museum of Canada
Archaeological textiles such as this Coptic fragment are among the rarest and richest sources of historical knowledge, recovered from arid desert landscapes of Egypt. Evidence of evolving belief systems, the floral motif and technique of this tapestry-woven medallion from Egypt’s Christian era reflects the mixing of classical Hellenic and ancient Egyptian worlds. Adorning tunics – the quintessential garments of men and women – such roundels were believed to offer the wearer protection. Their creation was laborious and time consuming, from the preparation of the wool and the process of dying the yarns to the visual design and intricate weaving required in construction. Through the resourceful and practical reuse of such elaborate ornaments, each could adorn multiple garments over lifetimes. The Copts have occupied the Nile Valley from the 3rd century to the present, a continuity that has allowed for the unique currency of such symbolic traditions today. This roundel is from the collection of the Textile Museum of Canada, which has over 13,000 textiles. In 2013, the Museum undertook upgrades to the storage of its archaeological textiles in order to ensure the longevity of these vulnerable cultural materials.
Jack Bush, <em>Mainly Tan</em>, 1967 image
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Jack Bush, Mainly Tan, 1967
Oil on canvas
Private Collection
 - Jack Bush, <em>Mainly Tan</em>, 1967
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Jack Bush, Mainly Tan, 1967
Oil on canvas
Private Collection
Jack Bush (1909-1977) was part of the Painters Eleven (1953-1960) group in Toronto, created to promote abstract art in Canada. It was the famous art critic Clement Greenberg who mentored Bush and connected him to the Color Field movement. Bush painted Mainly Tan, an excellent example of the Color Field style, in the same year that he represented Canada at the Sao Paulo Art Biennial, leading him to great success in New York and elsewhere. National Gallery of Canada recently had a solo exhibition in which 130 of Bush’s paintings, drawings and commercial illustrations were shown.
Joyce Wieland, <em>Barren Ground Caribou</em>, 1978 image
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Joyce Wieland, Barren Ground Caribou, 1978
Fabric
Toronto Transit Commission
 - Joyce Wieland, <em>Barren Ground Caribou</em>, 1978
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Joyce Wieland, Barren Ground Caribou, 1978
Fabric
Toronto Transit Commission
Joyce Wieland (1931-1988) was one of Canada’s leading contemporary women artists. She brought a craft sensibility to her work in film, painting and animation, and used fabric to create quilted pieces and sewn collages. Key themes in her work were gender, ecology and Canadian identity. Barren Ground Caribou (1978), her large-scale quilted collage, depicts a group of the eponymous migratory animals that often walk for thousands of miles from tundra to forest in search of food. This piece was commissioned by the Ontario Heritage Fund in 1976, during a time when Wieland was contracted to create several large works including Defend the Earth/Défendez la terre, a quilted wall mural for the National Science Library, Ottawa (1973). Barren Ground Caribou, now owned by the Toronto Transit Commission, is permanently installed at the Kendal Avenue exit of Spadina Station.
Section of the maple tree that inspired the song
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Section of the maple tree that inspired the song "The Maple Leaf Forever"
Ontario Science Centre
 - Section of the maple tree that inspired the song
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Section of the maple tree that inspired the song "The Maple Leaf Forever"
Ontario Science Centre
The tree that inspired the song “The Maple Leaf Forever” was felled in a windstorm in July 2013. It was outside of Alexander Muir’s cottage on Laing Street, Leslieville, and the song he wrote in 1867 would possibly have become the national anthem if it hadn't received backlash for British patriotism. The main section of the silver maple now resides at the Ontario Science Centre, and other parts have been salvaged: saplings have been planted in Ottawa and Toronto, a flagpole made from its wood now stands at the House of Commons in Ottawa, the Canadian Museum of History has pieces and various woodworkers have made of it bowls, stands and lecterns. The Ontario Wood Carvers Association is onsite at the Science Centre, carving into a section of the tree’s main branch to commemorate important people, places and events in Toronto’s history.

Bios

 - Scott McFarland
Scott McFarland
Scott McFarland

Scott McFarland lives and works in Toronto, Canada. His works are included in public collections such as the MoMA, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the National Gallery of Canada, the SFMoMA, the Walker Art Center, and the Vancouver Art Gallery. In 2014, the Art Gallery of Ontario exhibited McFarland’s solo exhibition “Snow, Shacks, Streets, Shrubs” which surveyed his recent work, and other major surveys were presented at the National Gallery of Canada (2010) and the Vancouver Art Gallery (2009). In the Spring of 2016, McFarland’s work is currently included in the inaugural exhibition About Time at SFMoMA.

 - Scott McFarland
 - PARTISANS
PARTISANS
PARTISANS
The shipping containers we’re using as part of our design throughout the Hearn are also the phenotypic antecedents to the pods we designed to house Luminato's virtual art gallery, Trove: A View of Toronto in 50 of its Treasures. A repository of special local art pieces, ideas and objects, Trove lets you travel back to the future. It is comprised of apertures — openings in the time-space continuum — that act like a recursive series of lenses to offer simulated glimpses of actual treasures. Trove is like looking in a rearview mirror, only the reflection reveals objects rarely before seen and stories yet untold. It is also an architectural metaphor for the city we want to bring into sharper focus.

PARTISANS is a young and intrepid architecture studio whose work across all scales is rooted in deliberate acts of craftsmanship and storytelling. We are architects, artists, thinkers, and cultural enthusiasts devoted to a cause: smart, beautiful, and provocative design.

 

 - PARTISANS

Acknowledgements

ARentals.caArts EtobicokeArtscapeCity of Toronto Historic SitesCity of TorontoDaniels SpectrumDowntown YongeDragon City MallThe Drake HotelEast End ArtsEpic Realty PartnersJuxta ProductionsLakeshore ArtsThe Laneway ProjectThe Lucky PennyMackenzie HouseMarlin Spring InvestmentsMorbaNorth York Artsoma chiropractic & wellness centreThe Paper PlacePure PlazaRiverside BIAScarborough ArtsSt. Lawrence Market Neighbourhood BIASTYLEGARAGEToronto International Film FestivalToronto Centre for the ArtsY+ Contemporary

Luminato would like to thank private collectors throughout the city, as well as the Ontario Science Centre, National Archives, Textile Museum of Canada, Museum of Inuit Art, MZTV Museum of Television and Archive, Japanese Cultural Centre, Gardiner Museum, National Ballet of Canada, Mike Wilson / The Ultimate Maple Leafs Fan, Casa Loma, Toronto Public Library, AGO, ROM, Oldenburg van Bruggen Studio, Bata Shoe Museum, TIFF, and Toronto Transit Commission.

In particular, we are grateful to Kitty Scott for her invaluable advice, as well as Ann Webb, Denise Pillon, Dushanthi Jayawardena, Eleanor Johnston and Murray Schafer, Linda Milrod, Amirali Alibhai, Amanda Chambers, Cynthia Shipley, Debbie Johnson, Shauna McCabe, Wayne Reeves, Robert Kerr, Carolyn King, Suzanne Smith, Sandy Tsirlis, Nick Woolridge, Ian Nicklin, Meg Symsyk, Geddy Lee, Lauren Williams, Carolyn Stewart, Garrett Herman, Theressa Takasaki, Kelvin Browne, Catharine Carr, Jason Cheong, Slyvia Frank, Jaclyn Furlong, Mary Rae Shantz, Leslie McGrath, Gerald McMaster, Michael Snow, Peggy Gale, Robert Little, David Moos, Shannon Armishaw, Suzanne Petersen, Elizabeth Semmelhack, Marla and Larry Wasser, Scott Briscoe / Sikkema Jenkins Co., Stephen Smart, Wayne Zronick, Mike Ferriman, Salah Bachir, Jacob Yerex, Adrienne Clarkson, Beverly Creed, Bruce Kuwabara, Debra and Barry Campbell, Dina Graser, David Angelo, Doris Daughney, Elisa Nutyen, Gail Lord, Julia Ouelette, Julian Sleath, Karen Kain, Kenneth Brummel, Piers Handling, Rana Florida, Shauna Levy, and Moses Znaimer.

Last but certainly not least, we would like to thank our community partners who brought these hidden treasures to the streets of Toronto this summer: Roncesvalles Village BIA, The Dundas Roncesvalles Peace Garden, the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation, Generation 3 Foods, DFI Property Management, The Crossways Complex Creccal Investments Ltd., Parkdale Village BIA, The Roncey Hotel, BSAR (Queen) Ltd, Liberty Village BIA, The Fueling Station, Nadège Patisserie, Dundas West BIA, Little Portugal BIA, Dundas West Fest, West Neighbourhood House, LCBO Dundas & Dovercourt, Enwave Energy Corporation, Church-Wellesley Village BIA, akasha art projects inc, ARentals, Marlin Spring Investments, The Laneway Project, The Alleyway of Dreams Project, Bangladesh Centre & Community Services (BCCS), The Lucky Penny General Store & Cafe, St. Lawrence Market Neighbourhood BIA, Market Galleria Condominium Corporation, Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area, Mackenzie House, City of Toronto, Arts Etobicoke, Scarborough Arts, North York Arts, Lakeshore Arts, East End Arts, The Kingston Social, Fort York National Historic Site, City of Toronto Museums & Heritage Services, Charlotte Hale Gallery, Riverside BIA, Oma Chiropractic & Wellness Centre, The Paper Place, Morba, Bay Bloor Radio, Centrepoint Mall, Stylegarage, Y+ Contemporary, City of Toronto Edithvale Community Centre, Stephen Bulger Gallery, Plazacorp Investments Limited, Thirty Three Bloor Ltd., Morguard, Juxta Productions, Toronto Centre for the Arts, Daniels Spectrum, Dragon City Developments, Allied Properties REIT – QRC West Mason Denture Clinic, Kathleen Beal, BLACK Digital Media for Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, Bloor Hot Docs Cinema, TIFF, Oxford Properties Group.